Frontosa The Fish With A Big Forehead

The genus name Cyphotilapia is composed by Cypho (from a Greek term meaning hunchback) and Tilapia (translated from a local dialect word meaning fish). The specific Latin name frontosa means with a big forehead. Frontosa can grow to a significant size with even captive specimens potentially growing to 35 cm in length. It has distinct markings with 5-7 black vertical bars adorning a white or blue body and head and trailing fins with a distinct blue hue. The species also develops a nuchal hump that is more pronounced in older fishes. Frontosa is popular aquarium fish and several naturally occurring colour morphs are frequently available for sale to hobbyists. Due to its size. Frontosa needs a relatively large aquarium, however, it behaves relatively sedately and is tolerant of both con- and heterospecifics. Frontosa need a cave or similar rocky structure to live in; this is to ensure the frontosa feels secure. If these are not present to satisfy the frontosa's need for security it will begin to attack the other fish in the tank. This is especially true with male frontosa. Female frontosa are more likely to be satisfied with ground territory. They are best kept with other cichlids or semi-aggressive fish. They do not like being alone and should be kept in groups of 3 or more. Keeping more than one adult male requires a large tank though.The genus name Cyphotilapia is composed by Cypho (from a Greek term meaning hunchback) and Tilapia (translated from a local dialect word meaning fish). The specific Latin name frontosa means with a big forehead.

Frontosa can grow to a significant size with even captive specimens potentially growing to 35 cm in length. It has distinct markings with 5-7 black vertical bars adorning a white or blue body and head and trailing fins with a distinct blue hue. The species also develops a nuchal hump that is more pronounced in older fishes.

Frontosa is popular aquarium fish and several naturally occurring colour morphs are frequently available for sale to hobbyists. Due to its size. Frontosa needs a relatively large aquarium, however, it behaves relatively sedately and is tolerant of both con- and heterospecifics. Frontosa need a cave or similar rocky structure to live in; this is to ensure the frontosa feels secure. If these are not present to satisfy the frontosa’s need for security it will begin to attack the other fish in the tank. This is especially true with male frontosa. Female frontosa are more likely to be satisfied with ground territory. They are best kept with other cichlids or semi-aggressive fish. They do not like being alone and should be kept in groups of 3 or more. Keeping more than one adult male requires a large tank though.

Corydoras, Cories or Cory catfish

Corydoras is a genus of freshwater in the armored catfish family (Corydoradinae subfamily) and are commonly referred to as corydoras, cories or cory catfish. The name Corydoras is derived from the Greek kory (helmet) and doras (skin). Corydoras is by far the largest genus of Neotropical fishes with more than 160 species.  Most species prefer being in groups and many species are found in schools or aggregations of hundreds or even thousands of individuals, usually of a single species, but occasionally with other species mixed in. Unlike most catfishes which are nocturnal, Corydoras species are active during the daytimeCorydoras is a genus of freshwater in the armored catfish family (Corydoradinae subfamily) and are commonly referred to as corydoras, cories or cory catfish. The name Corydoras is derived from the Greek kory (helmet) and doras (skin). Corydoras is by far the largest genus of Neotropical fishes with more than 160 species.

Most species prefer being in groups and many species are found in schools or aggregations of hundreds or even thousands of individuals, usually of a single species, but occasionally with other species mixed in. Unlike most catfishes which are nocturnal, Corydoras species are active during the daytime

Discus Fish : Green Discus, Blue Discus, Brown Discus, Red Spotted Discus, Tefe Discus

The majestic, graceful, and dignified Discus fish has been described as the "King of the Aquarium Fishes" for good reason. They are highly esteemed within the fish keeping hobby due to their dramatic coloring, refined shape, and regal bearing and are widely considered to be the pinnacle of tropical fish keeping. These quiet, peaceful, and elegant creatures inspire appreciation and dedication like no other fish. Discus are considered part of the cichlid family and are categorized into three species, two of which have been long time standards and one which has been relatively recently described. The Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus and its close relative the Heckel Discus or Red Discus Symphysodon discus are the most recognized species. These two are found in the central and lower Amazon regions and are very similar in coloring and behavioral disposition. Both are considered valid species by the scientific community. The third species, the Blue Discus or Brown Discus Symphysodon haraldi, was recently identified by Mr. Heiko Bleher and is awaiting further work to determine identification and validation.  There are many local color varieties, possibly due to natural hybridization, though most available Discus today are tank bred varieties. Through selective breeding a wide variety of body shapes, colors, and patterns are being produced. These tank bred varieties are widely divergent from the wild caught discus and tend to be better adapted to tank life, requiring less stringent care than their wild caught brethren. Even so, tank bred Discus are more demanding of good water quality, require a larger aquarium, and are more expensive than many tropical fish.  Discus were first imported into the United States and Europe in the 1930's and 1940's. Early efforts to ship and keep these fish proved exceptionally difficult, but much more is now known about their needs and requirements. An experienced and dedicated aquarist will find these fish a challenging and rewarding experience.The majestic, graceful, and dignified Discus fish has been described as the “King of the Aquarium Fishes” for good reason. They are highly esteemed within the fish keeping hobby due to their dramatic coloring, refined shape, and regal bearing and are widely considered to be the pinnacle of tropical fish keeping. These quiet, peaceful, and elegant creatures inspire appreciation and dedication like no other fish.

Discus are considered part of the cichlid family and are categorized into three species, two of which have been long time standards and one which has been relatively recently described. The Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus and its close relative the Heckel Discus or Red Discus Symphysodon discus are the most recognized species. These two are found in the central and lower Amazon regions and are very similar in coloring and behavioral disposition. Both are considered valid species by the scientific community. The third species, the Blue Discus or Brown Discus Symphysodon haraldi, was recently identified by Mr. Heiko Bleher and is awaiting further work to determine identification and validation.

There are many local color varieties, possibly due to natural hybridization, though most available Discus today are tank bred varieties. Through selective breeding a wide variety of body shapes, colors, and patterns are being produced. These tank bred varieties are widely divergent from the wild caught discus and tend to be better adapted to tank life, requiring less stringent care than their wild caught brethren. Even so, tank bred Discus are more demanding of good water quality, require a larger aquarium, and are more expensive than many tropical fish.

Discus were first imported into the United States and Europe in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Early efforts to ship and keep these fish proved exceptionally difficult, but much more is now known about their needs and requirements. An experienced and dedicated aquarist will find these fish a challenging and rewarding experience.

Special thx : Leopard Pigeon Discus Symphysodon aequifasciata Photo © Animal-World: Courtesy Greg Rothschild

Oscars

The Oscar originates from the Amazon River basin in Peru, Colombia, Brazil and French Guiana. It is also known as the velvet cichlid and the marble cichlid. The Latin name Astronotus means ray back, while ocellatus refers to the eyespot on the base of the tail. Oscars have been bred into a variety of colors including albino, red, tiger and black. They also have been bred into a long fin variety. Oscars are narrow in width with an oval shape, a large mouth and a protruding jaw. Oscars are very hardy and they grow quite quickly when young. They are slow moving, but are capable of swimming rapidly. Despite their large size and compatibility problems, discussed below, Oscars are a very popular aquarium fish. They demonstrate intelligence and personality to their owners that make them a favorite. They will recognize their owner and can be fed from the hand.   The general recommendation is to keep either one Oscar or a school of at least 6. A single Oscar will be very lonely, while groups of less than 6 will result in deaths inflicted by aggression. Following these guidelines, a tank of around 500 gallons is the best environment for Oscars. If you are able to determine a compatible pair, a 100 gallon tank is recommended. The tank should have dim lighting and it should be covered to prevent jumping out. Plants will be destroyed, so driftwood and rocks are recommended. Floating plants and plastic toys will be played with. Clean water is extremely important. Oscars are susceptible to Hole in the Head Disease. This condition, caused by the protozoan Hexamita, can be prevented by maintaining excellent water quality and a varied diet. Oscars will eat almost anything including cichlid pellets, cichlid flakes, earthworms, bloodworm, shrimp, bugs, frozen foods, krill, ghost shrimp, feeder fish, crayfish and insect larvae. Feeder fish are not usually recommended due to the risk of bringing disease into the aquarium and also because a diet of live fish can increase aggression.   Oscars basically aren’t compatible with other fish, however we have heard of some success with silver dollars, bala sharks, firemouths, texas cichlids, jack dempseys, blue acara, clown loaches, pictus catfish, African knifefish, plecostomus, pacus, gars and tin foil barbs. One of the main criteria for compatibility will be size, as Oscars will eat any other fish that it can fit in its mouth.  More specifically, diameter is an issue, as Oscars can swallow some very long plecos over an extended period time.   Oscars are difficult to breed, mainly because it is hard to determine sexes. With the size constraint, it becomes a challenge to raise enough Oscars to be able to watch them pair off. The female will lay hundreds of eggs on a clean surface, which also makes raising the fry a challenge.The Oscar originates from the Amazon River basin in Peru, Colombia, Brazil and French Guiana. It is also known as the velvet cichlid and the marble cichlid. The Latin name Astronotus means ray back, while ocellatus refers to the eyespot on the base of the tail. Oscars have been bred into a variety of colors including albino, red, tiger and black. They also have been bred into a long fin variety. Oscars are narrow in width with an oval shape, a large mouth and a protruding jaw. Oscars are very hardy and they grow quite quickly when young. They are slow moving, but are capable of swimming rapidly. Despite their large size and compatibility problems, discussed below, Oscars are a very popular aquarium fish. They demonstrate intelligence and personality to their owners that make them a favorite. They will recognize their owner and can be fed from the hand.

The general recommendation is to keep either one Oscar or a school of at least 6. A single Oscar will be very lonely, while groups of less than 6 will result in deaths inflicted by aggression. Following these guidelines, a tank of around 500 gallons is the best environment for Oscars. If you are able to determine a compatible pair, a 100 gallon tank is recommended. The tank should have dim lighting and it should be covered to prevent jumping out. Plants will be destroyed, so driftwood and rocks are recommended. Floating plants and plastic toys will be played with. Clean water is extremely important. Oscars are susceptible to Hole in the Head Disease. This condition, caused by the protozoan Hexamita, can be prevented by maintaining excellent water quality and a varied diet. Oscars will eat almost anything including cichlid pellets, cichlid flakes, earthworms, bloodworm, shrimp, bugs, frozen foods, krill, ghost shrimp, feeder fish, crayfish and insect larvae. Feeder fish are not usually recommended due to the risk of bringing disease into the aquarium and also because a diet of live fish can increase aggression.

Oscars basically aren’t compatible with other fish, however we have heard of some success with silver dollars, bala sharks, firemouths, texas cichlids, jack dempseys, blue acara, clown loaches, pictus catfish, African knifefish, plecostomus, pacus, gars and tin foil barbs. One of the main criteria for compatibility will be size, as Oscars will eat any other fish that it can fit in its mouth.  More specifically, diameter is an issue, as Oscars can swallow some very long plecos over an extended period time.

Oscars are difficult to breed, mainly because it is hard to determine sexes. With the size constraint, it becomes a challenge to raise enough Oscars to be able to watch them pair off. The female will lay hundreds of eggs on a clean surface, which also makes raising the fry a challenge.

The Green Terror – Aequidens Rivulatus A South American Cichlid

The Green Terror - Aequidens rivulatus is a South American Cichlid originating in still waters in Peru and Ecuador. Subspecies include the gold saum and the white saum. Their color changes to green at maturity for both males and females, if they have a proper diet and water conditions. Generally the males are brighter, while females are darker and somewhat smaller than the males.  Numerous dark spots run in parallel lines across the body. The tail is often the brightest area and can be edged in reddish orange. The males develop a broad forehead with a pronounced hump.   Green Terrors  are very aggressive and should not be kept with their own kind - there is good reasoning behind their name.  A pair of Green Terrors must be watched very carefully if there are other cichlids in the tank, as the Terrors will kill other inhabitants when they begin to breed.  A Green Terror should be kept in a tank of at least 50 gallons.  A single Green Terror in a tank can act as a calming force on other aggressive species.  The tank should be well planted and provide rocks, driftwood, caves and hiding areas.  Clay pots work very well.  Like most Cichlids, Green Terrors will accept a variety of foods, including flake foods, freeze dried bloodworms and Cichlid pellets.   Mature males establish and control a territory.  During breeding, aggression toward the female and other species is extreme.  Hundreds of eggs are fertilized against a clean vertical surface.  Both parents will aggressively defend the young until the fry reach an age where the parents can't control them.The Green Terror – Aequidens rivulatus is a South American Cichlid originating in still waters in Peru and Ecuador. Subspecies include the gold saum and the white saum. Their color changes to green at maturity for both males and females, if they have a proper diet and water conditions. Generally the males are brighter, while females are darker and somewhat smaller than the males.  Numerous dark spots run in parallel lines across the body. The tail is often the brightest area and can be edged in reddish orange. The males develop a broad forehead with a pronounced hump.

Green Terrors  are very aggressive and should not be kept with their own kind – there is good reasoning behind their name.  A pair of Green Terrors must be watched very carefully if there are other cichlids in the tank, as the Terrors will kill other inhabitants when they begin to breed.  A Green Terror should be kept in a tank of at least 50 gallons.  A single Green Terror in a tank can act as a calming force on other aggressive species.  The tank should be well planted and provide rocks, driftwood, caves and hiding areas.  Clay pots work very well.  Like most Cichlids, Green Terrors will accept a variety of foods, including flake foods, freeze dried bloodworms and Cichlid pellets.

Mature males establish and control a territory.  During breeding, aggression toward the female and other species is extreme.  Hundreds of eggs are fertilized against a clean vertical surface.  Both parents will aggressively defend the young until the fry reach an age where the parents can’t control them.